Data tables and their fields

OCTOPUS data tables, using a spatial allegory, can be grouped into a global, a regional, and a local level. While Global tables can serve any database relation, Regional tables should be seen as thematic tables matching certain sub-collections. Finally, Local tables are collection specific tables with a high degree of specialisation compared to the two aforementioned higher-level table groups.

PostgreSQL data types, constraints, and foreign key principles are comprehensibly described in the PostgreSQL online documentation (https://www.postgresql.org/docs/15/datatype.html). Another excellent, more introductory read is Michael J. Hernandez’ Database design for Mere Mortals - A Hands-On Guide to Relational Database Design.

Note

To ensure database integrity, any OCTOPUS db relation features a “CREATED_AT” (= record timestamp with timezone based on UTC) and a “UPDATED_AT” (= timestamp of record update with timezone based on UTC) field, respectively. These fields are automatically populated upon db trigger, however, are not displayed as part of this documentation for the sake of readability.

Global tables

This section features information about Global lookup tables (i.e., indexed arrays of certain data recurring across the entire database), Global georeferencing tables (i.e., tables that store information about the spatial context of an observation), and Global references tables. The latter relations form the part of OCTOPUS db that allows for definite identification of data sources resp. publications.

Global lookup tables

The following tables serve various collections across the entire OCTOPUS database.

global_varunitID table

The global_varunitID table stores variable units for those compilations whose values involve different units of measurement. Data tables with invariant variable units, however, do not feature explicit units fields. global_varunitID is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

V_UNITID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

V_UNITABBR

text

ukey

TRUE

V_UNITNAME

text

ukey

PARENTID

int2

fkey

V_UNITID

  • V_UNITID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • V_UNITABBR – Unique abbreviation of “V_UNITNAME”. For available values refer to global_varunitID fields

  • V_UNITNAME – Unit name. For available values refer to global_varunitID fields

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “V_UNITID” 1

global_GrainSize table

The global_GrainSize table, focusing on granulomety, stores the type of (sedimentary rock) material sampled, serving several collections as for instance CRN collections 🍻 (“MATERIAL”), ExpAge collection 💥 (“MATERIAL”), and SahulSed collections 🍰 (“SED_MAT”).

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

GRNSIZEID

int2

pkey

TRUE

GRNSIZE

text

ukey

TRUE

GRNSIZEABB

varchar(6)

ukey

TRUE

GRNSIZEMIN

numeric(7, 4)

mm

GRNSIZEMAX

numeric(7, 4)

mm

  • GRNSIZEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • GRNSIZE – Name of grain size fraction / material. For available values refer to global_GrainSize fields

  • GRNSIZEABB – Unique abbreviation of “GRNSIZE”

  • GRNSIZEMIN – Lower grainsize fraction limit, if applicable

  • GRNSIZEMAX – Upper grain size fraction limit, if applicable

Global georeferencing tables

global_MetaSite table

The global_MetaSite table stores metasite-related information for all compilations. A ‘metasite’, according to OCTOPUS semantic framework, is a similarity-based cluster of sites. In OCTOPUS data model hierarchy global_MetaSite is superordinate to global_SiteMaster, <collection name>_Sample, and <sub-collection name>_DataCore tables (in this decreasing order). However, whilst the latter three levels can’t be NULL, “METASITE” is quasi nullable.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

METASITEID

text

pkey

TRUE

METANAME

text

META_WKT

text

META_AREA

numeric

META_COMMT

text

META_DESCR

text

FEATURESRC

smallint

fkey

cabah_datasourceID table

FEATURETYP

smallint

fkey

global_SiteCode table

  • METASITEID – A unique identifier

  • METANAME – Metasite name

  • META_WKT – Metasite WKT notation describing a bounding box

  • META_AREA – Metasite area, i.e., area of the bounding box

  • META_COMMT – Metasite comment

  • META_DESCR – Metasite description

  • FEATURESRC – Source of the feature that is represented by a bounding box for the sake of plainness. For available values refer to cabah_datasourceID table

  • FEATURETYP – If the ‘metasite’ is related to a natural (e.g. lake) or anthropogenic feature (e.g. quarry): type of the feature, if meaningful and available. For available values refer to global_SiteCode table

global_SiteCode table

The global_SiteCode table stores site types characterising the dominant attribute of a site. global_SiteCode is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

SITECODEID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

SITECODE

text

TRUE

PARENTID

int2

fkey

SITECODEID

SITEDESCR

text

  • SITECODEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • SITECODE – For available values refer to global_SiteCode fields

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “SITECODEID”

  • SITEDESCR – A concise description of “SITECODE”

global_SiteMaster table

The global_SiteMaster table stores an information set that enables georeferencing and description of a sampled site.

Note

Site coordinates for both SahulArch and FosSahul collections, for cultural reasons, were obfuscated within a radius of 25 km. Spatial data for those collections includes sample locations as circular polygons.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

SITEID

text

pkey

TRUE

METASITEID

text

fkey

global_MetaSite table

CNTRY

varchar(3)

TRUE

REGION_INT

text

REGION_REG

varchar(3)

DIV_ADMIN

varchar(7)

DIV_OTHER

text

ISL_NAME

text

LAKE

text

BASIN

text

RIVID

int2

fkey

global_rivID table

IBRAID

int2

fkey

global_ibraID table

X_WGS84

numeric(10, 6)

decimal deg

Y_WGS84

numeric(10, 6)

decimal deg

CORDS_ELEV

varchar(9)

TRUE

ELEVATION

numeric(6, 2)

m

SITENAME

text

SITE_SPEC

text

ALTNAME1

text

ALTNAME2

text

ALTNAME3

text

SITECODEID

int2

fkey

global_SiteCodeID

OPENCLOSED

varchar(6)

SITE_COMMT

text

BIOMEID

int4

fkey

global_biomeID table

CATCHSZEID

int2

fkey

cabah_catchmentsizeID table

BASINSZEID

int2

fkey

cabah_basinsizeID table

FLOWTYPEID

int2

fkey

cabah_flowtypeID table

NEO_SITEID

int4

SITEDESRC

text

  • SITEID – A unique site identifier provided as part of the compilation

  • METASITEID – Is fkey. Refer to global_MetaSite table table

  • CNTRY – ISO 3166 Alpha-3 country code. (‘ND’ = no data)

  • REGION_INT – Region where the study site is located. (‘ND’ = no data)

  • REGION_REG – Refers to Sahul region. Same as “CNTRY” but needed to accommodate for ‘TSI’. (‘ND’ = no data)

  • DIV_ADMIN – ISO 3166 code of the administrative region where the study site is located. (‘ND’ = no data). Geospatial source files have been stored in the non-public part of OCTOPUS database documentation, but will be made available upon request.

  • DIV_OTHER – Geographical region in ‘PNG’ and ‘TSI’ where study site is located. (‘ND’ = no data), (‘NA’ = not applicable). Geospatial source files have been stored in the non-public part of OCTOPUS database documentation, but will be made available upon request.

  • ISL_NAME – Name of island where study site is located. (‘ND’ = no data), (‘NA’ = not applicable)

  • LAKE – Name of lake where study site is located. (‘ND’ = no data), (‘NA’ = not applicable)

  • BASIN – Name of river basin where study site is located. (‘ND’ = no data), (‘NA’ = not applicable)

  • RIVID – Is fkey. For available values refer to global_rivID table table

  • IBRAID – Is fkey. For available values refer to global_ibraID table table

  • X_WGS84 – WGS84 longitude of site

  • Y_WGS84 – WGS84 latitude of site

  • CORDS_ELEV – Dual field. First part of value refers to source of coordinates (“X_WGS84”, “Y_WGS84”) for the sample site (‘INTP’, or ‘ORIG’, or ‘ND’). Second part of value refers to “ELEVATION” (‘INTP’, or ‘ORIG’, or ‘ND’). Nine (9) combinations possible

  • ELEVATION – Elevation above sea level. (-9999 = no data)

  • SITENAME – Name of the site. (‘ND’ = no data), (‘NA’ = not applicable)

  • SITE_SPEC – Further specifies information given in “SITENAME”. (‘ND’ = no data), (‘NA’ = not applicable)

  • ALTNAME1 – First alternative or additional name of the site (e.g., published under previous name etc.). (‘NA’ = not applicable)

  • ALTNAME2 – Second alternative or additional name of the site. (‘NA’ = not applicable)

  • ALTNAME3 – Third alternative or additional name of the site. (‘NA’ = not applicable)

  • SITECODEID – Is fkey. For available values refer to global_SiteCode table table

  • OPENCLOSED – This field records whether the site was closed (i.e., a rockshelter, cave or other enclosed site) or open (i.e., an artefact scatter, midden on a beach etc.), and is used in the application of taphonomic techniques in time-series analysis. Please note that ‘Closed’ does not relate to availability or accessibility of information. Note - This field is related to the SahulArch collections 🔍 collection, i.e., will not appear in any other collection view 2 or flat output table.

  • SITE_COMMT – Free text site comment field

  • BIOMEID – Is fkey. For available values refer to global_biomeID table table

  • CATCHSZEID – Is fkey. For available values refer to cabah_catchmentsizeID table table

  • BASINSZEID – Is fkey. For available values refer to cabah_basinsizeID table table

  • FLOWTYPEID – Is fkey. For available values refer to cabah_flowtypeID table table

  • NEO_SITEID – Is the corresponding neotoma/IPPD site ID, if applicable.

  • SITE_COMMT – Free text site description field that, where applicable, stores neotoma/IPPD site descriptions.

global_UnitMaster table

The global_UnitMaster table stores collection-unit related information for all compilations. Collection units are defined in the cabah_unittypeID table table. In OCTOPUS data model hierarchy global_UnitMaster is situated between the collection-specific sample tables (subordinate) and the global_SiteMaster table table (superordinate); (= SITEID). The global_UnitMaster table is exclusively used for collections with a corresponding demand, i.e., will be bypassed for any collection that does not deal with multiple samples / observations from one and the same location / site / unit (e.g. a core).

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

UNITID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

SITEID

text

fkey

TRUE

global_SiteMaster table

UNITNAME

text

UNITHANDLE

varchar(10)

ukey

UNITTYPEID

int2

fkey

TRUE

cabah_unittypeID table

COLLECTID

int2

fkey

TRUE

cabah_col_mtdID table

DEPOSITID

int2

fkey

TRUE

cabah_depositID table

COLLDATE

varchar(10)

WATERDEPTH

numeric

m

NEO_HANDLE

varchar(10)

ukey

UNIT_COMMT

text

COLL_SPEC

text

IS_CHAR

boolean

TRUE

IS_IPPD

boolean

TRUE

IS_NEOTOMA

boolean

TRUE

UNIT_REF

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

  • UNITID – Unique identifier (serial integer)

  • SITEID – Is fkey. Refer to global_SiteMaster table table

  • UNITNAME – Name of the site

  • UNITHANDLE – Code name for the Collection Unit. This code may be up to 10 characters, but an effort is made to keep these to 8 characters or less. Data are frequently distributed by Collection Unit, and the Handle is used for file names. (description from (and rationale according to) neotoma database)

  • UNITTYPEID – Is fkey. For available values refer to cabah_unittypeID table table

  • COLLECTID – Is fkey. For available values refer to cabah_col_mtdID table table

  • DEPOSITID – Is fkey. For available values refer to cabah_depositID table table

  • COLLDATE – Is unit collection date, if reported, at the highest possible dd/mm/yyyy level.

  • WATERDEPTH – Water depth in m. (-9999.99 = no data)

  • NEO_HANDLE – See “UNITHANDLE”, but derived from Neotoma database

  • UNIT_COMMT – Free text site comment field

  • COLL_SPEC – Stores collection process specifics (if applicable)

  • IS_CHAR – Is this collection unit part of the SahulChar collection?

  • IS_IPPD – Is this collection unit part of the IPPD collection?

  • IS_NEOTOMA – Is this collection unit part of Neotoma db?

  • UNIT_REF – Primary collection unit reference. Is fkey. For available values refer to global_RefCore table table

global_biomeID table

The global_biomeID table stores iconic biome types that allow for a coarse characterisation/classifications of sampled sites amongst Earth’s major biogeographic units. global_biomeID is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

BIOMEID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

BIOMETYPE

text

ukey

TRUE

PARENTID

int2

fkey

BIOMEID

BIOMEDESCR

text

  • BIOMEID – Unique identifier (serial integer)

  • BIOMETYPE – Name of biome. For available values refer to global_biomeID_Fields

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “BIOMEID”

  • BIOMEDESCR – A concise description of “BIOMETYPE”

global_ibraID table

The global_ibraID table stores the location code of a site within the relevant bioregion as defined by the Interim Bio-Regionalisation of Australia (IBRA7) framework.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

IBRAID

int2

pkey

TRUE

IBRACODE

varchar(3)

ukey

TRUE

IBRAREGION

text

ukey

TRUE

  • IBRAID – Unique identifier (serial integer)

  • IBRACODE – IBRA code. For available values refer to global_ibraID fields

  • IBRAREGION – IBRA region name. For available values refer to global_ibraID fields

Important

The global_ibraID table only applies to samples from Australia.

global_rivID table

The global_rivID table stores the Geofabric AHGF river name/region code (http://www.bom.gov.au/metadata/catalogue/19115/ANZCW0503900426) of the river that drains the catchment of sample origin.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

RIVID

int2

pkey

TRUE

AHGFL1

varchar(3)

TRUE

AHGFL2

varchar(6)

ukey

TRUE

RIVNAME

text

RIVDIV

text

  • RIVID – Unique identifier (serial integer)

  • AHGFL1 – Geofabric AHGF river region code

  • AHGFL2 – Geofabric AHGF combined river region code (“AHGLF1”) and topographic drainage division two-digit number

  • RIVNAME – Geofabric AHGF river name. For available values refer to global_rivID fields

  • RIVDIV – Geofabric AHGF river division name

Important

The global_rivID table only applies to samples from Australia.

spatial_ref_sys table

The spatial_ref_sys table comes with PostgreSQL’s PostGIS extention. As an OGC compliant database table it lists over 3000 spatial reference systems and technical details needed to transform/reproject between them. For more information see Section 4.2.1. of the PostGIS online manual.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

srid

int4

pkey

TRUE

auth_name

varchar(256)

auth_srid

int4

srtext

varchar(2048)

proj4text

varchar(2048)

  • srid 3 – An integer value that uniquely identifies the Spatial Referencing System (SRS) within the database

  • auth_name – The name of the standard or standards body that is being cited for this reference system. For example, “EPSG” would be a valid AUTH_NAME

  • auth_srid – The ID of the Spatial Reference System as defined by the Authority cited in the AUTH_NAME. In the case of EPSG, this is where the EPSG projection code would go.

  • srtext – The Well-Known Text representation of the Spatial Reference System

  • proj4text – PostGIS uses the Proj4 library to provide coordinate transformation capabilities. The PROJ4TEXT column contains the Proj4 coordinate definition string for a particular SRID

Global references tables

global_RefCore table

The global_RefCore table stores information that allow certain identification and citation of OCTOPUS collection data sources according to BibTeX 4 referencing standards. In this context, different reference entry types require different minimum information standards, i.e., combinations of fields of which some will be required, some will be optional, and others will be ignored by BibTeX. Those three categories are defined in the global_PubType fields section. OCTOPUS database will always seeks to provide information beyond the minimum requirements, though with sense of proportion. As a result, for instance, language will never be captured for English publications because it is considered the communication standard.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

REFDBID

text

pkey

TRUE

OAID

varchar(11)

fkey

global_Author table

REFDOI

text

AUTHORS

text

TITLE

text

PUBTYPEID

int2

fkey

TRUE

global_PubType table

JOURNALID

int2

fkey

global_Journal table

VOLUME

text

NUMBER

text

PAGES

text

YEAR

int2

TRUE

ADDRESS

text

NOTE

text

URL

text

BOOKTITLE

text

CHAPTER

text

EDITOR

text

PUBLISHER

text

INSTITUTION

text

SCHOOL

text

  • REFDBID – A unique identifier in the format Name<colon>YearKeyword where Name is the family name of the first author, Year is the publication year, and Keyword is a catchy single word from the publication title. No whitespace or special characters are allowed. The keyword must not be numeric.

  • REFDOI – Publication Digital Object Identifier (DOI), if available

  • AUTHORS – Full sequence of publication authors in the format FamilyA, ForenameA; FamilyB, ForenameB; … where forenames may be abbreviated with leading capital letter in the format FamilyA, A.; FamilyB, B.; …

  • TITLE – Publication title

  • VOLUME – Volume of publication medium

  • NUMBER – Number of publication medium

  • PAGES – Page range divided by double dash (e.g. 102--208), running article number, or a number of pages for books, theses

  • YEAR – Year of publication

  • ADDRESS – Usually the address of the publisher or other institution

  • NOTE – Free text field for annotations

  • URL – Publication url, especially favoured when no DOI available

  • BOOKTITLE – Title of a book, part of which is being cited. In OCTOPUS, further, title of website

  • CHAPTER – A chapter, section, sequence etc. number

  • EDITOR – Name(s) of editor(s) in the format defined above

  • PUBLISHER – Publisher’s name

  • INSTITUTION – Institutuion sponsoring a technical report

  • SCHOOL – Name of school where thesis was written

global_RefAbstract table

The global_RefAbstract table stores publication abstracts for references in global_RefCore table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

REFDBID

text

pkey

TRUE

ABSTRACT

text

  • REFDBID – Uses same “REFDBID” as global_RefCore table table does (because is one-to-one relationship)

  • ABSTRACT – Is publication abstract, if available. Note - Very extensive abstracts have been truncated and marked as … [_truncated_] at their end. For available abstracts refer to global_RefAbstract fields

global_Author table

The global_Author table stores information about publication (first) authors, which can be individuals or corporations.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

OAID

varchar(11)

pkey

TRUE

AUTH

text

TRUE

FORENAME

text

INITIALS

text

ORCID

varchar(19)

SCOPUSID

text

WSCC_RESID

text

AUTH_COMMT

text

AUTH_URL

text

URL_DATE

date

  • OAID – A unique identifier

  • AUTH – Author family name. If the author is not an individual, but a corporation, ‘(Corp.)’ will be added to the abbreviated corporation name, both of which will be followed by the full corporation name as for instance ‘ALA (Corp.) Atlas of Living Australia (online)’. For corporations “FORENAME” : “WSCC_RESID” fields must not be populated.

  • FORENAME – Auhtor given name(s)

  • INITIALS – Given name(s) initial(s) incl. full stop and divided by space char.

  • ORCID – Open Researcher and Contributor ID (https://info.orcid.org/what-is-orcid/). ORCID is the preferred external identifier!

  • SCOPUSID – Scopus ID (https://www.scopus.com)

  • WSCC_RESID – Web of Science author ID (currently owned by Clarivate, https://clarivate.com/). Only relevant in case “ORCID” and “SCOPUSID” are not available

  • AUTH_COMMT – Free text comment field

  • AUTH_URL – URL field. Only used if “AUTH” is a corporation

  • URL_DATE – Date of “AUTH_URL” visit. Only applicable if “AUTH_URL” is not NULL

global_Journal table

The global_Journal table stores information about peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

JOURNALID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

JOURNAL

text

TRUE

JOURNALABB

text

TRUE

PRINT_ISSN

varchar(9)

ONLIN_ISSN

varchar(9)

global_PubType table

The global_PubType table stores publication entry types according to BibTeX standards.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

PUBTYPEID

int2

pkey

TRUE

PUBTYPE

text

  • PUBTYPEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • PUBTYPE – For available values refer to global_PubType fields

global_RefKeyword table

global_RefKeyword is thoroughly boolean and stores compilation membership keywords for observations and is part of OCTOPUS reference system (= REFDBID; one to one).

global_dbDOI table

global_dbDOI is a lookup table that stores information about OCTOPUS (sub-)compilation versions, preferred as digital object identifiers.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

DBDOI

text

pkey

TRUE

DBDOICOMMT

text

DBVER

int2

DBVERNO

numeric

DBVERNAME

text

  • DBDOI – Unique identifier (Digital Object Identifier) issued by UOW Library

  • DBDOICOMMT – (sub)Collection comment

  • DBVER – (sub)Collection publication year

  • DBVERNO – (sub)Collection version

  • DBVERNAME – (sub)Collection name (if applicable)


Regional tables

Non-Cosmogenics tables

cabah_LabCodes table

The cabah_LabCodes table stores information about the lab of origin for a certain C14 or luminescence observation, i.e., measurement. The labs have been identified automatically by their distinct labcode prefixes

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

LAB_ORIGID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

LAB_PREFIX

text

LAB_FACLTY

text

CNTRY

varchar(3)

LAB_ACTIVE

bool

LAB_MTD

varchar(3)

LAB_URL

text

LAB_SOURCE

text

  • LAB_ORIGID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • LAB_PREFIX – Lab prefix. For available values refer to cabah_LabCodes fields

  • LAB_FACLTY – Facility / institution of lab affiliation. For available values refer to cabah_LabCodes fields

  • CNTRY – Country of “LAB_FACLTY”

  • LAB_ACTIVE – Whether the lab is active or not

  • LAB_MTD – Lab method (C14, OSL, TL)

  • LAB_URL – Lab url

  • LAB_SOURCE – Source of information stored in a certain tuple. Major yources are ‘Radiocarbon’ (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200038923) and ‘RadonKiel’ (https://radon.ufg.uni-kiel.de/labs).

cabah_agetypeID table

The cabah_agetypeID table stores the type of time unit used for sample age specification.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

AGETYPEID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

AGETYPE

text

ukey

TRUE

AGETDESCR

text

AGETCOMMT

text

  • AGETYPEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • AGETYPE – Unique age type name. For available values refer to cabah_agetypeID fields

  • AGETDESCR – “AGETYPE” description. For available values refer to cabah_agetypeID fields

  • AGETCOMMT – “AGETYPE” reference. For available values refer to cabah_agetypeID fields

cabah_basinsizeID table

The cabah_basinsizeID table, according to the Global Paleofire Database (https://www.paleofire.org/) template, stores arbitrary water body area classes (basin = water body itself).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

BASINSZEID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

BASINSIZE

varchar(3):p

ukey

TRUE

BASINAREA

text

  • BASINSZEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • BASINSIZE – Unique basin size class abbreviation. For available values refer to cabah_basinsizeID fields

  • BASINAREA – “BASINSIZE” description. For available values refer to cabah_basinsizeID fields

cabah_catchmentsizeID table

The cabah_catchmentsizeID table, according to the Global Paleofire Database (https://www.paleofire.org/) template, stores arbitrary catchment area classes (catchment = area contributing to a certain basin).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

CATCHSZEID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

CATCHMSIZE

varchar(3):p

ukey

TRUE

CATCHMAREA

text

  • CATCHSZEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • CATCHMSIZE – Unique catchment size class abbreviation. For available values refer to cabah_catchmentsizeID fields

  • CATCHMAREA – “CATCHSZEID” description. For available values refer to cabah_catchmentsizeID fields

cabah_charmethodID table

The cabah_charmethodID is a lookup table for charcoal-related compilations, i.e., SahulCHAR. This table stores the method of charcoal quantification.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

CHARMTDID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

CHARMETHOD

text

ukey

TRUE

CHARMTDDSC

text

CHARMTDREF

text

cabah_chemprepID table

The cabah_chemprepID table stores the type of chemical pretreatment given to a sample. Note - Methods capture the majority of methods applied in Australia. There may be considerable variation within each pretreatment code.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

CHEMPREPID

int2

pkey

TRUE

CHEMPREP

text

ukey

TRUE

CHEMPREPAB

text

ukey

cabah_col_mtdID table

The cabah_col_mtdID table stores the sample collection method. cabah_col_mtdID is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

COL_MTDID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

COL_MTD

text

TRUE

PARENTID

int2

fkey

COL_MTDID

  • COL_MTDID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • COL_MTD – For available values refer to cabah_col_mtdID fields

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “COL_MTDID”

cabah_datasourceID table

The cabah_datasourceID table stores the way that data / information have been gathered for database integration.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

DATASRCID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

DATASOURCE

text

ukey

TRUE

DATASRCDSC

text

DATASRCREF

text

cabah_depositID table

The cabah_depositID table stores the type of deposit sampled. cabah_depositID is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

DEPOSITID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

DEPOSIT

text

ukey

TRUE

PARENTID

int(2)

fkey

DEPOSITID

DEPOSITDSC

text

  • DEPOSITID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • DEPOSIT – Unique deposit abbreviation. For available values refer to cabah_depositID fields

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “DEPOSITID”

  • DEPOSITDSC – “DEPOSITID” description. For available values refer to cabah_depositID fields

cabah_flowtypeID table

The cabah_flowtypeID table, according to the Global Paleofire Database (https://www.paleofire.org/) template, stores flow type descriptors for water bodies.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

FLOWTYPEID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

FLOWTYPE

varchar(7):p

ukey

TRUE

FLOWTYPDCR

text

  • FLOWTYPEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • FLOWTYPE – Unique flow type abbreviation. For available values refer to cabah_flowtypeID fields

  • FLOWTYPDCR – “FLOWTYPEID” description. For available values refer to cabah_flowtypeID fields

cabah_methodID table

The cabah_methodID table stores the type of method used in age/rate determination. cabah_methodID is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

METHODID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

METHOD

text

ukey

TRUE

METHODABBR

text

ukey

TRUE

PARENTID

int2

fkey

TRUE

METHODID

METHODREF

text

  • METHODID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • METHOD – For available values refer to cabah_methodID fields

  • METHODABBR – For available values refer to cabah_methodID fields

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “METHODID”

  • METHODREF – Basic method literature reference

cabah_unittypeID table

The cabah_unittypeID table, according to Neotoma’s IPPD template, stores collection unit types. cabah_unittypeID is a lookup table for compilations that involve collection units, i.e., SahulCHAR.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

UNITTYPEID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

UNITTYPE

text

ukey

TRUE

UNITTDESCR

text

  • UNITTYPEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • UNITTYPE – For available values refer to cabah_unittypeID fields

  • UNITTDESCR – “UNITTYPE” description. For available values refer to cabah_unittypeID fields

c14_calcurve table

The c14_calcurve table stores calibration curves used for radiocarbon age calibration.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

CALCURVEID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

CALCURVE

text

TRUE

CALCURVREF

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

CALCRVNOTE

text

  • CALCURVEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • CALCURVE – Calibration curve used for C14 calibration

  • CALCURVREF – Calibration curve reference

  • CALCRVNOTE – Calibration curve note

c14_calprogram table

The c14_calprogram table stores computer programmes – incl. their versions – that may be used for radiocarbon calibration. c14_calprogram is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

CALPROGID

serieal4

pkey

TRUE

CALPROGRAM

text

ukey(1)

TRUE

CALPROGVER

text

ukey(2)

CALPROGREF

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

PARENTID

int2

fkey

TRUE

CALPROGID

CALPRODATE

text

CALPRONOTE

text

  • CALPROGID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • CALPROGRAM – Program used for C14 calibration

  • CALPROGVER – Calibration programme version

  • CALPROGREF – Calibration programme reference

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “CALPROGID”

  • CALPRODATE – Calibration programme publication date

  • CALPRONOTE – Calibration programme note

Note

Not the individual “CALPROGRAM” (ukey1) and “CALPROGVER” (ukey2), but only their combination forms the ukey.

Cosmogenics tables

crn_alstndID table

The crn_alstndID table stores Al standards, correction factors, ratios and related information.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

ALSTNDID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

ALSTND

text

TRUE

ALSTND_PUB

text

ALCORR

numeric(5, 4)

ALSTNDRTIO

numeric

ALSTNDCOMT

text

  • ALSTNDID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • ALSTND – Al meta-standard equivalent to “ALSTND_PUB”

  • ALSTND_PUB – Published Al standard

  • ALCORR – Al correction factor

  • ALSTNDRTIO – Al standard ratio

  • ALSTNDCOMT – Al standard comment

For available values refer to crn_alstndID fields

crn_bestndID table

The crn_bestndID table stores Be standards, correction factors, ratios and related information.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

BESTNDID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

BESTND

text

TRUE

BESTND_PUB

text

BECORR

numeric(5, 4)

BESTNDRTIO

numeric

BESTNDCOMT

text

  • BESTNDID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • BESTND – Be meta-standard equivalent to “BeSTND_PUB”

  • BESTND_PUB – Published Al standard

  • BECORR – Be correction factor

  • BESTNDRTIO – Be standard ratio

  • BESTNDCOMT – Be standard comment

For available values refer to crn_bestndID fields

Luminescence tables

osl-tl_agemodelID table

The osl-tl_agemodelID table stores the model used to combine individual equivalent dose estimates for age determination.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

AGEMODELID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

AGEMODEL

text

ukey

TRUE

AGEMODELAB

text

ukey

TRUE

  • AGEMODELID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • AGEMODEL – For available values refer to osl-tl_agemodelID fields

  • AGEMODELAB – Unique abbreviation of “AGEMODEL”. For available values refer to osl-tl_agemodelID fields

osl-tl_ed_procID table

The osl-tl_ed_procID table stores the reported procedure used to determine sample equivalent dose for OSL and TL methods.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

ED_PROCID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

ED_PROC

text

ukey

TRUE

ED_PROCABR

text

ukey

TRUE

  • ED_PROCID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • ED_PROC – For available values refer to osl-tl_ed_procID fields

  • ED_PROCABR – Unique abbreviation of “ED_PROC”. For available values refer to osl-tl_ed_procID fields

osl-tl_lum_matID table

The osl-tl_lum_matID table stores the type of sample material used for OSL and TL dating.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

LUM_MATID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

LUM_MAT

text

ukey

TRUE

LUM_MATABB

text

ukey

TRUE

  • LUM_MATID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • LUM_MAT – For available values refer to osl-tl_lum_matID fields

  • LUM_MATABB – Unique abbreviation of “LUM_MAT”. For available values refer to osl-tl_lum_matID fields

osl-tl_mineralID table

The osl-tl_mineralID table stores the type of mineral used for equivalent dose determination.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

MINERALID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

MINERAL

text

ukey

TRUE

MINERALABB

text

ukey

TRUE

  • MINERALID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • MINERAL – For available values refer to osl-tl_mineralID fields

  • MINERALABB – Unique abbreviation of “MINERAL”. For available values refer to osl-tl_mineralID fields

osl-tl_mtdID table

The osl-tl_mtdID table stores the method used to determine a certain element concentration of the sample resp. the method used to determine an external dose rate.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

MTDID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

MTD

text

ukey

TRUE

MTDAB

text

ukey

TRUE

  • MTDID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • MTD – For available values refer to osl-tl_mtdID fields

  • MTDAB – Unique abbreviation of “MTDAB”. For available values refer to osl-tl_mtdID fields

osl_typeID table

The osl_typeID table stores the published OSL type used to determine equivalent dose.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

OSL_TYPEID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

OSL_TYPE

text

ukey

TRUE

OSL_TYPEAB

text

ukey

TRUE

  • OSL_TYPEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • OSL_TYPE – For available values refer to osl_typeID fields

  • OSL_TYPEAB – Unique abbreviation of “OSL_TYPE”. For available values refer to osl_typeID fields


Local tables

CRN tables

The following tables exclusively serve the CRN collections 🍻.

crn_Sample table

The crn_Sample table stores CRN collection sample information and is, therefore, situated between the collection-specific DataCore tables (subordinate) and the global_SiteMaster table (superordinate; see Semantic data model).

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

SMPID

text

pkey

TRUE

SITEID

text

TRUE

global_SiteMaster table

STUDYID

varchar(13)

TRUE

MATERIAL

int2

fkey

global_GrainSize table

SIZEMIN

int4

µm

SIZEMAX

int4

µm

PROJEPSGID

int2

fkey

crn_projepsgID table

AREA

numeric(12, 2)

km^2

ELEV_AVE

numeric(6, 2)

m

ELEV_STD

numeric(6, 2)

m

SLP_AVE

numeric

m.km^-1

SLP_STD

numeric

m.km^-1

SMP_DAY

int2

SMP_MONTH

int2

SMP_YEAR

int2

SMP_COMMT

text

  • SMPID – Unique sample identifier that, first and foremost, serves database operation. CRN SMPIDs have been aggregated using similarities in concatenated roundup(3) “Y_WGS84” AND roundup(3) “X_WGS84” AND “SIZEMIN” AND “SIZEMAX”.

  • SITEID – Unique site identifier that, first and foremost, serves database operation. CRN SITEIDs have been aggregated using similarities in concatenated roundup(3) “Y_WGS84” AND roundup(3) “X_WGS84”, with running alphabetic letter(s) added.

  • STUDYID – Unique study identifier provided as part of the compilation

  • MATERIAL – Abbreviated type of material sampled

  • SIZEMIN – Minimum grain size sampled

  • SIZEMAX – Maximum grain size sampled

  • PROJEPSGID – EPSG projection code, used as unique identifier, of projected coordinate system used for calculations

  • AREA – Basin area as calculated from projected DEM 5

  • ELEV_AVE – Mean elevation of basin as calculated from projected DEM

  • ELEV_STD – Standard deviation of elevation of basin as calculated from projected DEM

  • SLP_AVE – Mean slope gradient of basin as calculated from projected DEM

  • SLP_STD – Standard deviation of slope gradient of basin as calculated from projected DEM

  • SMP_DAY – Sampling day (if published)

  • SMP_MONTH – Sampling month (if published)

  • SMP_YEAR – Sampling year (if published)

  • SMP_COMMT – Free text sample comment field.

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

crn_al_DataCore table

The crn_al_DataCore table stores Al-26 observations (= smallest data model entity) for the CRN collections 🍻 and is subordinate to the crn_Sample table.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

OBSID1

text

pkey

TRUE

SMPID

text

fkey

TRUE

crn_Sample table

OBSID2

text

IGSNID

text

DBDOI

text

fkey

TRUE

global_dbDOI table

REFDBID1

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

AL26NP

int8

atoms.g^-1

AL26NP_ERR

int8

atoms.g^-1

AL26EP

numeric

mm.kyr^-1

AL26EP_ERR

numeric

mm.kyr^-1

ALSTNDID

int2

fkey

crn_alstndID table

ALAMSID

int2

fkey

crn_amsID table

AL26NC

int8

atoms.g^-1

AL26NC_ERR

int8

atoms.g^-1

ALPROD

numeric

dimless 6

ALTOPO

numeric

dimless

ALSELF

numeric

dimless

ALSNOW

numeric

dimless

ALTOTS

numeric

dimless

EAL_GCMYR

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

ERRAL_AMS

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

ERRAL_MUON

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

ERRAL_PROD

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

ERRAL_TOT

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

EAL_MMKYR

numeric

mm.kyr^-1

EAL_ERR

numeric

mm.kyr^-1

  • OBSID1 – Unique CRN AMS measurement identifier provided as part of the compilation.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is not necessarily the lab code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample.

  • IGSNID – Placeholder for International Geo Sample Number unique ID

  • AL26NP – Published Al-26 concentration

  • AL26NP_ERR – Published 1-sigma uncertainty in Al-26 concentration

  • AL26EP – Published Al-26 denudation rate

  • AL26EP_ERR – Published 1-sigma uncertainty in Al-26 denudation rate

  • AL26NC – Al-26 concentration normalised to KNSTD

  • AL26NC_ERR – Uncertainty in Al-26 concentration normalised to KNSTD

  • ALPROD – CAIRN average production scaling correction for the basin

  • ALTOPO – CAIRN average topographic shielding correction for the basin

  • ALSELF – CAIRN average self shielding correction for the basin

  • ALSNOW – CAIRN average snow shielding correction for the basin

  • ALTOTS – CAIRN average combined shielding and scaling correction for the basin

  • EAL_GCMYR – CAIRN Al-26 denudation rate in mass per unit area

  • ERRAL_AMS – CAIRN Al-26 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level in mass per unit area derived from AMS uncertainty

  • ERRAL_MUON – CAIRN Al-26 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level in mass per unit area derived from muon uncertainty

  • ERRAL_PROD – CAIRN Al-26 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level in mass per unit area derived from uncertainty in the production rate

  • ERRAL_TOT – CAIRN Al-26 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level in mass per unit area that combines all uncertainties

  • EAL_MMKYR – CAIRN Al-26 denudation rate calculated assuming density of of 2650 kg.m^-3

  • EAL_ERR – CAIRN Al-26 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level calculated assuming density of 2650 kg.m^-3

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

crn_be_DataCore table

The crn_be_DataCore table stores Be-10 observations (= smallest data model entity) for the CRN collections 🍻 and is subordinate to the crn_Sample table.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

OBSID1

text

pkey

TRUE

SMPID

text

fkey

TRUE

crn_Sample table

OBSID2

text

IGSNID

text

DBDOI

text

fkey

TRUE

global_dbDOI table

REFDBID1

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

BE10NP

int8

atoms.g^-1

BE10NP_ERR

int8

atoms.g^-1

BE10EP

numeric

mm.kyr^-1

BE10EP_ERR

numeric

mm.kyr^-1

BESTNDID

int2

fkey

crn_bestndID table

BEAMSID

int2

fkey

crn_amsID table

BE10NC

int8

atoms.g^-1

BE10NC_ERR

int8

atoms.g^-1

BEPROD

numeric

dimless

BETOPO

numeric

dimless

BESELF

numeric

dimless

BESNOW

numeric

dimless

BETOTS

numeric

dimless

EBE_GCMYR

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

ERRBE_AMS

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

ERRBE_MUON

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

ERRBE_PROD

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

ERRBE_TOT

numeric

g.cm^-2.yr^-1

EBE_MMKYR

numeric

mm.kyr^-1

EBE_ERR

numeric

mm.kyr^-1

  • OBSID1 – Unique CRN AMS measurement identifier provided as part of the compilation.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is not necessarily the lab code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample.

  • IGSNID – Placeholder for International Geo Sample Number unique ID

  • BE26NP – Published Be-10 concentration

  • BE26NP_ERR – Published 1-sigma uncertainty in Be-10 concentration

  • BE26EP – Published Be-10 denudation rate

  • BE26EP_ERR – Published 1-sigma uncertainty in Be-10 denudation rate

  • BE26NC – Be-10 concentration normalised to 07KNSTD

  • BE26NC_ERR – Uncertainty in Be-10 concentration normalised to 07KNSTD

  • BEPROD – CAIRN average production scaling correction for the basin

  • BETOPO – CAIRN average topographic shielding correction for the basin

  • BESELF – CAIRN average self shielding correction for the basin

  • BESNOW – CAIRN average snow shielding correction for the basin

  • BETOTS – CAIRN average combined shielding and scaling correction for the basin

  • EBE_GCMYR – CAIRN Be-10 denudation rate in mass per unit area

  • ERRBE_AMS – CAIRN Be-10 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level in mass per unit area derived from AMS uncertainty

  • ERRBE_MUON – CAIRN Be-10 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level in mass per unit area derived from muon uncertainty

  • ERRBE_PROD – CAIRN Be-10 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level in mass per unit area derived from uncertainty in the production rate

  • ERRBE_TOT – CAIRN Be-10 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level in mass per unit area that combines all uncertainties

  • EBE_MMKYR – CAIRN Be-10 denudation rate calculated assuming density of 2650 kg.m^-3

  • EBE_ERR – CAIRN Be-10 denudation rate uncertainty at 1-sigma level calculated assuming density of 2650 kg.m^-3

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

crn_amsID table

The crn_amsID table stores information about Acceleration Mass Spectrometer (AMS) facilities.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

AMSID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

AMS

text

TRUE

AMSORG

text

AMSURL

text

  • AMSID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • AMS – Abbreviated AMS name. For available values refer to crn_amsID fields

  • AMSORG – Full name of AMS facility. For available values refer to crn_amsID fields

  • AMSURL – AMS url

crn_projepsgID table

The crn_projepsgID table stores study-specific projection information (EPSG and human readable), i.e., the particular UTM projected coordinate system used for (re)calculations.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

PROJEPSGID

int2

pkey

TRUE

PROJECTION

varchar(13)

TRUE

  • PROJEPSGID – EPSG 7 projection code, used as unique identifier

  • PROJECTION – For available values refer to crn_projepsgID fields

crn_studies_boundingbox table

The crn_studies_boundingbox table is a CRN denudation spatial features table (polygons, EPSG:900913) whose bounding boxes define study extents, respectively.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

serial4

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry

STUDYID

varchar(5)

ukey

TRUE

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT 8 notation of bounding box geometry

  • STUDYID – CRN collections 🍻 study ID

crn_v3_basins_EPSG3857 table

The crn_v3_basins_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., multipolygons of the CRN collections (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

int4 seq.

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry*

OBSID1

text

pkey, ukey

TRUE

crn_be_DataCore table, crn_al_DataCore table

OBSID2

text

STUDYID

varchar(5)

crn_studies_boundingbox table

CRN_SUBCMP

varchar(3)

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation (multipolygon, 3857)

  • OBSID1 – Unique CRN AMS measurement identifier provided as part of the compilation.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is not necessarily the lab code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample.

  • STUDYID – Unique study ID

  • CRN_SUBCMP – CRN subcompilation (Global, Australian, inPrep, XXL)

crn_v3_outlets_EPSG3857 table

The crn_v3_outlets_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., points of the CRN collections (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

int4 seq.

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry*

OBSID1

text

pkey, ukey

TRUE

crn_be_DataCore table, crn_al_DataCore table

OBSID2

text

STUDYID

varchar(5)

crn_studies_boundingbox table

CRN_SUBCMP

varchar(3)

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation (point, 3857)

  • OBSID1 – Unique CRN AMS measurement identifier provided as part of the compilation.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is not necessarily the lab code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample.

  • STUDYID – Unique study ID

  • CRN_SUBCMP – CRN subcompilation (Global, Australian, inPrep, XXL)

SahulArch tables

The following tables exclusively serve the SahulArch collections 🔍.

arch_Sample table

The arch_Sample table stores SahulArch sample information and is, therefore, situated between the collection-specific DataCore tables (subordinate) and the global_SiteMaster table (superordinate; see Semantic data model).

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

SMPID

text

pkey

TRUE

SITEID

text

fkey

TRUE

global_SiteMaster table

FEATDATEID

int2

arch_featdatedID table

SQUARE

text

XU

text

SMPDEPTH

numeric(9, 2)

m

SMPX_WGS84

numeric(10, 6)

dec. deg.

SMPY_WGS84

numeric(10, 6)

dec. deg.

OCCUPATION

varchar(3):p

CONTEXT

varchar(10):p

SMP_COMMT

text

  • SMPID – Sample identifier provided as part of the compilation. The first part of the identifier (i.e., ARCH####) is linked to “SITEID”, the ID of the site. Where it is clear that two or more observations (dates/ rates) have been measured on one sample, they have the same “SMPID” but a different “OBSID1”. This also applies across methods, e.g., one sample with an OSL age and an U-series age will have the same “SMPID” but different “OBSID1” (i.e. ARCH####OSL### and ARCH####U###).

  • SITEID – Is fkey. Refers to global_SiteMaster table

  • FEATDATEID – For available values refer to arch_featdatedID fields

  • SQUARE – Square or trench designation from where the sample is from.

  • XU – Excavation Unit or spit designation from where the sample is from.

  • SMPDEPTH – Depth below the surface (or datum) from which sample was extracted. If the published sample depth was specified as a range, then the median value for that range is reported here.

  • SMPX_WGS84 – WGS84 longitude of site. Culturally sensitive. Coordinates not to be displayed!

  • SMPY_WGS84 – WGS84 latitude of site. Culturally sensitive. Coordinates not to be displayed!

  • OCCUPATION – Is the dated sample directly related to human activity (e.g. hearth, organic artefact, burial), or was it simply part of a wider archaeological deposit. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • CONTEXT – Was the sample collected from a stratigraphic unit that is associated with human ‘Occupation’ or one that was culturally ‘Sterile’. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Occupation’, ‘Sterile’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • SMP_COMMT – Free text sample comment field.

arch_c14_DataCore table

The arch_c14_DataCore table stores stores C14-related observations (= smallest data model entity), i.e., ages and their associated unique lab-derived data for the The SahulArch Radiocarbon collection.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

OBSID1

text

pkey

TRUE

SMPID

text

fkey

TRUE

arch_Sample table

OBSID2

text

LABID

text

IGSNID

text

LAB_ORIGID

int2

fkey

cabah_LabCodes table

METHODID

int2

fkey

TRUE

cabah_methodID table

DBDOI

text

fkey

global_dbDOI table

REFDBID1

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

REFDBID2

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID3

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID4

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

COL_MTDID

int2

fkey

cabah_col_mtdID table

MATERIA1ID

int2

fkey

c14_materia1ID table

MATERIA2ID

int2

fkey

c14_materia2ID table

BURNT

varchar(3):p

ARCHSPECIS

text

ORGPART

text

HUM_MODID

int2

fkey

c14_hum_modID table

SINGULAR

varchar(3):p

CONSERV

varchar(3):p

AGEMTD

varchar(4):p

PHYSCLEAN

varchar(3):p

CONTAMID

int2

fkey

c14_contamID table

CHEMPREPID

int2

fkey

cabah_chemprepID table

SOLVENT1

varchar(3):p

SOLVENT2ID

int2

fkey

c14_solvent2ID table

YIELD_MG

numeric

mg

YIELD_PCT

numeric

%

C

numeric

mg

C_ERR

numeric

mg

C_MTDID

int2

fkey

c_mtdID table

PCT_C

numeric

%

PCT_C_ERR

numeric

%

PCT_C_MTID

int2

fkey

c_mtdID table

PCT_N

numeric

%

PCT_N_ERR

numeric

%

PCT_N_MTID

int2

fkey

c_mtdID table

CN_RATIO

numeric

CN_ERR

numeric

CN_MTDID

int2

fkey

c_mtdID table

C13

numeric

C13_ERR

numeric

C13_MTDID

int2

fkey

c_mtdID table

O18

numeric

O18_ERR

numeric

O18_MTDID

int2

fkey

c_mtdID table

N15

numeric

N15_ERR

numeric

N15_MTDID

int2

fkey

c_mtdID table

S34

numeric

S34_ERR

numeric

S34_MTDID

int2

fkey

c_mtdID table

RECRYST

varchar(3):p

PCT_RE_VAL

numeric

%

PCT_RE_ERR

numeric

%

PCT_RE_MTD

varchar(5):p

C14_AGE

numeric

BP

C14_ERRPOS

numeric

BP

C14_ERRNEG

numeric

BP

C14_INF

varchar(3):p

F14C

numeric

F14C_ERR

numeric

C13_VALID

int2

fkey

c13_valID table

AGE_COMMT

text

  • OBSID1 – Unique age identifier provided as part of the compilation. The first part of the identifier (i.e., ARCH####) is linked to “SITEID”, the ID of the site. The second part of the identifier is unique to the database entry and does also include abbreviation given to the method used to produce the age. For method abbreviations see “METHOD”.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is NOT the laboratory code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample. Samples labelled only by numbers in the literature (e.g. 1, 2, 3 etc) have had a compound prefix – first three author name letters AND double-digit publication year – added (e.g. ‘Nan87_1’ for sample 1 (Nanson 1987)).

  • LABID – Unique lab code assigned by the lab where age was determined. For radiocarbon (and for many luminescence) labs, the first part of the lab code refers to the determining facility.

  • IGSNID – Placeholder for International Geo Sample Number unique ID

  • BURNT – Whether the material dated was burnt. Note that charcoal = ‘Yes’. Calcinated bone – typically white, whilst burnt bone is black – is different to burnt bone, and so is listed in “MATERIAL2” field. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’ (= burnt), ‘No’ (= not burnt), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • ARCHSPECIS – Genus and/ or species, i.e., scientific name of animal or plant used for 14C dating

  • ORGPART – Bone element, wood part etc. – e.g., ‘Sapwood’, ‘Heartwood’, ‘Twig’, ‘Ring number’, ‘Femur’ …

  • SINGULAR – Was a single entity (e.g., a single piece of charcoal, not several pieces found close to each other) dated, or were several pieces bulked together? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘NA’ (single entities do not exist, i.e., for example sediment), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • CONSERV – Was the sample conserved? For example, was it glued or soaked in a consolidant? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AGEMTD – Measurement method. Conventional includes liquid scintillation and gas proportional. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘AMS’ (= Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), ‘CONV’ (= conventional), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • PHYSCLEAN – Was the sample physically cleaned? For example, was the surface removed from bone (= ‘Yes’), were rootlets and sediment removed from charcoal (= ‘Yes’). 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • SOLVENT1 – Was the pretreatment preceded by a solvent extraction? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • YIELD_MG – Amount of material after pretreament in mg. If a range was used for a particular sample or (more commonly) all samples, the average for the range given is reported here.

  • YIELD_PCT – Amount of material after pretreament in %

  • C – mg of carbon dated

  • C_ERR – Error for measured mg carbon dated

  • PCT_C – Measured %C of the pretreated sample

  • PCT_C_ERR – Error for measured %C of the pretreated sample

  • PCT_N – Measured %N of the pretreated sample

  • PCT_N_ERR – Error for measured %N of the pretreated sample

  • CN_RATIO – Measured atomic C:N ratio of the pretreated sample

  • CN_ERR – Error for measured CN value of the pretreated sample

  • C13 – Measured δ13C of the pretreated sample. Note that δ13C value on graphite is not included as it is not equivalent to the δ13C on the pretreated material.

  • C13_ERR – Error for measured δ13C of the pretreated sample. Note that δ13C value on graphite is not included as it is not equivalent to the δ13C on the pretreated material.

  • O18 – Measured δ 18O of the of the pretreated sample

  • O18_ERR – Error for measured δ 18O of the pretreated sample

  • N15 – Measured δ15N of the of the pretreated sample

  • N15_ERR – Error for measured δ15N of the pretreated sample

  • S34 – Measured δ34S of the of the pretreated sample

  • S34_ERR – Error for measured δ34S of the of the pretreated sample.

  • RECRYST – Is secondary recrystallisation present in the pretreated carbonate sample? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • PCT_RE_VAL – Calcite/recrystallised mineral in the pretreated carbonate sample. Stain or microscopy methods used: 998 = presence of calcite/ recrystallization verified, or -991 = absence of calcite/ recrystallization.

  • PCT_RE_ERR – Error for measured amount of calcite/recrystallised mineral in the pretreated sample. Is -9999.99 even if “PCT_RE_VAL” = 998

  • PCT_RE_MTD – How was the presence and/or amount of calcite/recrystallisation measured in the pretreated carbonate sample. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Stain’ (= Fiegl’s stain), ‘XRD’ (= X-ray diffractometry), ‘FTIR’ (= FT infrared spectroscopy), ‘Micro’ (= Microscopy), ‘Other’ (= other), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • C14_AGE – Conventional radiocarbon age (CRA), as defined by Stuiver and Polach (1977):

    1. the use of the Libby half-life value of 5568 years (mean life 8033 years);

    2. the assumption of uniformity in 14C activity throughout the biosphere in the past;

    3. the use of oxalic acid or a secondary standard as the modern standard;

    4. isotopic fractionation normalization of all sample activities to the base of δ13C = -25.0 per mille (relative to the 13C:12C ratio of PDB standard); and,

    5. the use of AD 1950 as the base year, with ages given in years before present (BP) (i.e., AD 1950 = 0 BP)

Note

The above “C14_AGE” definition may not be met prior to c.1980 and is unlikely to be met prior to 1977. If the database user wishes to use dates from this period, they will need to establish how the radiocarbon age was calculated.

  • C14_ERRPOS – Estimated standard error attached to an individual determination, equal to one standard deviation (1σ). Note that occasionally determinations have asymmetrical standard deviations.

  • C14_ERRNEG – Estimated standard error attached to an individual determination, equal to one standard deviation (1σ). Note that occasionally determinations have asymmetrical standard deviations.

  • C14_INF – Is the date infinite (indistinguishable from the laboratory background). This field clarifies the two previous fields, where no data may be misinterpreted as an infinite measurement. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • F14C – Proportion of radiocarbon atoms in the sample compared to that present in the year AD 1950. “F14C” is pMC (percent modern carbon)/100.

  • F14C_ERR – Error for proportion of radiocarbon atoms in the sample compared to that present in the year AD 1950. The error for “F14C” is the error for pMC (percent modern carbon)/100.

  • AGE_COMMT – Free text age comment field

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

arch_osl_DataCore table

The arch_osl_DataCore table stores OSL-related observations (= smallest data model entity), i.e., ages and their associated unique lab-derived data for the The SahulArch OSL collection.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

OBSID1

text

pkey

TRUE

SMPID

text

fkey

TRUE

arch_Sample table

OBSID2

text

LABID

text

IGSNID

text

LAB_ORIGID

int2

fkey

cabah_LabCodes table

METHODID

int2

fkey

TRUE

cabah_methodID table

DBDOI

text

fkey

global_dbDOI table

REFDBID1

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

REFDBID2

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID3

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID4

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

COL_MTDID

int2

fkey

cabah_col_mtdID table

LUM_MATID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_lum_matID table

MINERALID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mineralID table

SIZE_MIN

int2

µm

SIZE_MAX

int2

µm

H2O_MEAS

numeric

%

H2O_USED

numeric

%

H2O_ERR

numeric

%

OSL_TYPEID

int2

fkey

osl_typeID table

ALIQ_TYPE

varchar(3):p

ALIQ_SIZE

numeric

mm

ED_PROCID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_ed_procID table

RESCOR

varchar(3):p

DOSERECOV

varchar(3):p

AGEMODELID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_agemodelID table

PH1_TEMP

int2

°C

PH2_TEMP

int2

°C

NUM_MEAS

int2

°C

NUM_ACC

int2

°C

EQUIVDOSE

numeric

Gy

ED_ERR

numeric

Gy

ED_INF

varchar(3):p

OD

numeric

OD_ERR

numeric

OD_TYPE

varchar(3):p

U

numeric

ppm / μg/g

U_ERR

numeric

ppm / μg/g

U_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

TH

numeric

ppm / μg/g

TH_ERR

numeric

ppm / μg/g

TH_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

K

numeric

ppm / μg/g

K_ERR

numeric

ppm / μg/g

K_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

U238

numeric

Bq/kg

U238_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

RA226

numeric

Bq/kg

RA226_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

PB210

numeric

Bq/kg

PB210_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

RA228

numeric

Bq/kg

RA228_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

TH228

numeric

Bq/kg

TH228_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

TH232

numeric

Bq/kg

TH232_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

K40

numeric

Bq/kg

K40_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

ALPH

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

BETA

numeric

Gy/ka

BETA_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

BETA_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

GAMMA

numeric

Gy/ka

GAMMA_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

GMMA_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

COSMIC

numeric

Gy/ka

COSMIC_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_I

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_I_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_I_MTD

varchar(8):p

BETA_I

numeric

Gy/ka

BETA_I_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

BETA_I_MTD

varchar(8):p

DIFF_DOSE

varchar(3):p

DOSERATE

numeric

Gy/ka

DOSE_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

OSL_AGE

numeric

ka

OSL_RNDERR

numeric

ka

OSL_ERR

numeric

ka

AGE_CI

varchar(2):p

FADCOR

varchar(3):p

G_VAL

numeric

%/10a

G_VAL_ERR

numeric

%/10a

AGE_COMMT

text

  • OBSID1 – Unique age identifier provided as part of the compilation. The first part of the identifier (i.e., ARCH####) is linked to “SITEID”, the ID of the site. The second part of the identifier is unique to the database entry and does also include abbreviation given to the method used to produce the age. For method abbreviations see “METHOD”.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is NOT the laboratory code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample. Samples labelled only by numbers in the literature (e.g. 1, 2, 3 etc) have had a compound prefix – first three author name letters AND double-digit publication year – added (e.g. ‘Nan87_1’ for sample 1 (Nanson 1987)).

  • LABID – Unique lab code assigned by the lab where age was determined. For radiocarbon (and for many luminescence) labs, the first part of the lab code refers to the determining facility.

  • IGSNID – Placeholder for International Geo Sample Number unique ID

  • SIZE_MIN – Reported minimum grain size used for equivalent dose and environmental dose rate determination

  • SIZE_MAX – Reported maximum grain size used for equivalent dose and environmental dose rate determination

  • H2O_MEAS – Water content as measured from the sample. “H2O_MEAS” will be -9999.99 for estimated, but not measured water content. For those samples, “H2O_USED” will hold the reported estimated value. If the measured water content is given as <1% in the original publication, then 1.0 was recorded here.

  • H2O_USED – Water content used for environmental dose rate determination

  • H2O_ERR – Standard error for “H2O_USED” (1σ)

  • ALIQ_TYPE – Reported aliquot type used for equivalent dose determination. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘SG’ (= Single Grain), ‘SA’ (= Single Aliquot), ‘MA’ (= Multipe Aliquots), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • ALIQ_SIZE – Reported size of aliquot diameter in mm

  • RESCOR – Residual dose correction was applied to the Equivalent Dose, specifically for IRSL, pIRIR, MET-pIRIR, VSL, and TT-OSL. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • DOSERECOV – Were dose recovery test results reported in the study? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • PH1_TEMP – Preheat temperature applied immediately prior to measurement of either the Natural, Regenerative or Additive dose

  • PH2_TEMP – Preheat temperature applied immediately prior to measurement of test dose

  • NUM_MEAS – Number of aliquots/grains measured for the sample

  • NUM_ACC – Number of aliquots/grains accepted for equivalent dose determination

  • EQUIVDOSE – Reported equivalent dose in Gy, sometimes referred to as ED, De, palaeodose (P) or burial dose

  • ED_ERR – Published error for the equivalent dose at 1 standard error (1σ)

  • ED_INF – Natural signal projected onto the dose saturation plateau of dose response curve (De represented is a minimum value)

  • OD – Overdispersion value for equivalent dose dataset calculated as per Galbraith et al., (1999)

  • OD_INF – Overdispersion error value (at 1 standard error, 1σ) for equivalent dose data set calculated as per Galbraith et al., (1999)

  • OD_TYPE – The unit of measure for “OD” and “OD_ERR” values

  • U – Uranium content of the sample

  • U_ERR – Standard error (1σ) for the uranium content of the sample

  • TH – Thorium content of the sample

  • TH_ERR – Standard error (1σ) for the thorium content of the sample

  • K – Potassium content of the sample. N.B. K not K2O

  • K_ERR – Standard error (1σ) for the potassium content of the sample

  • U238 – 238U content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • U238_ERR – Published error value for “U238”

  • RA226 – 226Ra content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • RA226_ERR – Published error value for “RA226”

  • PB210 – 210Pb content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • PB210_ERR – Published error value for “PB210”

  • RA228 – 228Ra content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • RA228_ERR – Published error value for “RA228”

  • TH228 – 228Th content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • TH228_ERR – Published error value for “TH228”

  • TH232 – 232Th content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • TH232_ERR – Published error value for “TH232”

  • K40 – 40K content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • K40_ERR – Published error value for “K40”

  • ALPH – External alpha dose rate (wet)

  • ALPH_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for external alpha dose rate

  • BETA – External beta dose rate (wet)

  • BETA_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for external beta dose rate

  • GAMMA – External gamma dose rate (wet)

  • GAMMA_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for external gamma dose rate

  • COSMIC – Cosmic dose rate (wet)

  • COSMIC_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for cosmic dose rate

  • ALPH_I – Internal alpha dose rate (from within grain)

  • ALPH_I_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for “ALPH_I”

  • ALPH_I_MTD – Was the internal alpha dose rate assumed or measured? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Assumed’, ‘Measured’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • BETA_I – Internal beta dose rate (from within grain)

  • BETA_I_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for “BETA_I”

  • BETA_I_MTD – Was the internal beta dose rate assumed or measured? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Assumed’, ‘Measured’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • DIFF_DOSE – Whether a different and/or additional method, not specified in this compilation was used to determine the dosimetry for this sample. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • DOSERATE – Total (wet) environmental dose rate used for age determination

  • DOSE_ERR – Total (wet) environmental dose rate error at 1σ

  • OSL_AGE – Published OSL age

  • OSL_RNDERR – Published Random only “OSL_AGE” error

  • OSL_ERR – Published total “OSL_AGE” error (random + systematic)

  • AGE_CI – Published confidence interval on the age estimate. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘1s’ (= 1 standard error [1σ]), ‘2s’ (= 2 standard error [2σ]), ‘SD’ (= Standard Deviation), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • FADCOR – “OSL_AGE” was corrected for fading, specifically for IRSL, pIRIR, and MET-pIRIR. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • G_VAL – Represents the correcting approach using value of fading rate in feldspars. If reported, express as percent per decade.

  • G_VAL_ERR – Published 1σ error for the “G_VAL”

  • AGE_COMMT – Free text age comment field

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

arch_tl_DataCore table

The arch_tl_DataCore table stores stores TL-related observations (= smallest data model entity), i.e., ages and their associated unique lab-derived data for the The SahulArch TL collection.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

OBSID1

text

pkey

TRUE

SMPID

text

fkey

TRUE

arch_Sample table

OBSID2

text

LABID

text

IGSNID

text

LAB_ORIGID

int2

fkey

cabah_LabCodes table

METHODID

int2

fkey

TRUE

cabah_methodID table

DBDOI

text

fkey

global_dbDOI table

REFDBID1

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

REFDBID2

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID3

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID4

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

COL_MTDID

int2

fkey

cabah_col_mtdID table

LUM_MATID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_lum_matID table

MINERALID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mineralID table

SIZE_MIN

int2

µm

SIZE_MAX

int2

µm

H2O_MEAS

numeric

%

H2O_USED

numeric

%

H2O_ERR

numeric

%

ALIQ_SIZE

numeric

mm

ED_PROCID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_ed_procID table

RESCOR

varchar(3):p

AGEMODELID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_agemodelID table

PLAT_REG

varchar(9)

°C

AN_TEMP

int2

°C

NUM_MEAS

int2

°C

EQUIVDOSE

numeric

Gy

ED_ERR

numeric

Gy

ED_SAT

numeric

Gy

ED_SATERR

numeric

Gy

U

numeric

ppm / μg/g

U_ERR

numeric

ppm / μg/g

U_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

TH

numeric

ppm / μg/g

TH_ERR

numeric

ppm / μg/g

TH_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

U_TH

numeric

Bq/kg

U_TH_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

U_TH_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

K

numeric

ppm / μg/g

K_ERR

numeric

ppm / μg/g

K_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

RB

numeric

ppm / μg/g

U238

numeric

Bq/kg

U238_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

RA226

numeric

Bq/kg

RA226_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

PB210

numeric

Bq/kg

PB210_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

RA228

numeric

Bq/kg

RA228_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

TH228

numeric

Bq/kg

TH228_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

TH232

numeric

Bq/kg

TH232_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

K40

numeric

Bq/kg

K40_ERR

numeric

Bq/kg

ALPH

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

BETA

numeric

Gy/ka

BETA_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

BETA_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

GAMMA

numeric

Gy/ka

GAMMA_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

GMMA_MTDID

int2

fkey

osl-tl_mtdID table

COSMIC

numeric

Gy/ka

COSMIC_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_I

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_I_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

ALPH_I_MTD

varchar(8):p

BETA_I

numeric

Gy/ka

BETA_I_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

BETA_I_MTD

varchar(8):p

DIFF_DOSE

varchar(3):p

DOSERATE

numeric

Gy/ka

DOSE_ERR

numeric

Gy/ka

TL_AGE

numeric

ka

TL_RNDERR

numeric

ka

TL_ERR

numeric

ka

AGE_CI

varchar(2):p

FADCOR

varchar(3):p

G_VAL

numeric

%/10a

G_VAL_ERR

numeric

%/10a

AGE_COMMT

text

  • OBSID1 – Unique age identifier provided as part of the compilation. The first part of the identifier (i.e., ARCH####) is linked to “SITEID”, the ID of the site. The second part of the identifier is unique to the database entry and does also include abbreviation given to the method used to produce the age. For method abbreviations see “METHOD”.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is NOT the laboratory code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample. Samples labelled only by numbers in the literature (e.g. 1, 2, 3 etc) have had a compound prefix – first three author name letters AND double-digit publication year – added (e.g. ‘Nan87_1’ for sample 1 (Nanson 1987)).

  • LABID – Unique lab code assigned by the lab where age was determined. For radiocarbon (and for many luminescence) labs, the first part of the lab code refers to the determining facility.

  • IGSNID – Placeholder for International Geo Sample Number unique ID

  • SIZE_MIN – Reported minimum grain size used for equivalent dose and environmental dose rate determination

  • SIZE_MAX – Reported maximum grain size used for equivalent dose and environmental dose rate determination

  • H2O_MEAS – Water content as measured from the sample. “H2O_MEAS” will be -9999.99 for estimated, but not measured water content. For those samples, “H2O_USED” will hold the reported estimated value. If the measured water content is given as <1% in the original publication, then 1.0 was recorded here.

  • H2O_USED – Water content used for environmental dose rate determination

  • H2O_ERR – Standard error for “H2O_USED” (1σ)

  • ALIQ_SIZE – Reported size of aliquot diameter in mm

  • RESCOR – Residual dose correction was applied to the Equivalent Dose, specifically for IRSL, pIRIR, MET-pIRIR, VSL, and TT-OSL. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • PLAT_REG – Pre-heat plateau region

  • AN_TEMP – Specific temperature at which analysis is performed

  • NUM_MEAS – Number of aliquots/grains measured for the sample

  • EQUIVDOSE – Reported equivalent dose in Gy, sometimes referred to as ED, De, palaeodose (P) or burial dose

  • ED_ERR – Published error for the equivalent dose at 1 standard error (1σ)

  • ED_SAT – Equivalent dose (ED) for the saturated age

  • ED_SATERR – Published 1σ error for the saturated age

  • U – Uranium content of the sample

  • U_ERR – Standard error (1σ) for the uranium content of the sample

  • TH – Thorium content of the sample

  • TH_ERR – Standard error (1σ) for the thorium content of the sample

  • U_TH – When U and Th elemental content are reported together, rather than separate U and Th. Reported as radioactive element specific activity

  • U_TH_ERR – Published error for “U_TH” specific activity

  • K – Potassium content of the sample. N.B. K not K2O

  • K_ERR – Standard error (1σ) for the potassium content of the sample

  • RB – Rubidium (Rb) content

  • U238 – 238U content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • U238_ERR – Published error value for “U238”

  • RA226 – 226Ra content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • RA226_ERR – Published error value for “RA226”

  • PB210 – 210Pb content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • PB210_ERR – Published error value for “PB210”

  • RA228 – 228Ra content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • RA228_ERR – Published error value for “RA228”

  • TH228 – 228Th content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • TH228_ERR – Published error value for “TH228”

  • TH232 – 232Th content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • TH232_ERR – Published error value for “TH232”

  • K40 – 40K content from High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS)

  • K40_ERR – Published error value for “K40”

  • ALPH – External alpha dose rate (wet)

  • ALPH_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for external alpha dose rate

  • BETA – External beta dose rate (wet)

  • BETA_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for external beta dose rate

  • GAMMA – External gamma dose rate (wet)

  • GAMMA_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for external gamma dose rate

  • COSMIC – Cosmic dose rate (wet)

  • COSMIC_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for cosmic dose rate

  • ALPH_I – Internal alpha dose rate (from within grain)

  • ALPH_I_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for “ALPH_I”

  • ALPH_I_MTD – Was the internal alpha dose rate assumed or measured? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Assumed’, ‘Measured’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • BETA_I – Internal beta dose rate (from within grain)

  • BETA_I_ERR – 1 standard error (1σ) for “BETA_I”

  • BETA_I_MTD – Was the internal beta dose rate assumed or measured? 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Assumed’, ‘Measured’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • DIFF_DOSE – Whether a different and/or additional method, not specified in this compilation was used to determine the dosimetry for this sample. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • DOSERATE – Total (wet) environmental dose rate used for age determination

  • DOSE_ERR – Total (wet) environmental dose rate error at 1σ

  • TL_AGE – Published TL age

  • TL_RNDERR – Published Random only “TL_AGE” error

  • TL_ERR – Published total “TL_AGE” error (random + systematic)

  • AGE_CI – Published confidence interval on the age estimate. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘1s’ (= 1 standard error [1σ]), ‘2s’ (= 2 standard error [2σ]), ‘SD’ (= Standard Deviation), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • FADCOR – “OSL_AGE” was corrected for fading, specifically for IRSL, pIRIR, and MET-pIRIR. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • G_VAL – Represents the correcting approach using value of fading rate in feldspars. If reported, express as percent per decade.

  • G_VAL_ERR – Published 1σ error for the “G_VAL”

  • AGE_COMMT – Free text age comment field

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

arch_featdatedID table

The arch_featdatedID table stores information about specific features dated.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

FEATDATEID

int2

pkey

TRUE

FEATDATED

text

TRUE

  • FEATDATEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • FEATDATED – For available values refer to arch_featdatedID fields

c13_valID table

The c13_valID table stores information whether delta13C was measured or assumed.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

C13_VALID

int2

pkey

TRUE

C13_VAL

text

TRUE

  • C13_VALID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • C13_VAL – For available values refer to c13_valID fields

c14_contamID table

The c14_contamID table stores information about specific contaminants that may have remained after C14 sample pretreatment.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

CONTAMID

int2

pkey

TRUE

CONTAM

text

TRUE

  • CONTAMID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • CONTAM – For available values refer to c14_contamID fields

c14_hum_modID table

The c14_hum_modID table stores information about indications of human modification.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

HUM_MODID

int2

pkey

TRUE

HUM_MOD

text

TRUE

  • HUM_MODID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • HUM_MOD – For available values refer to c14_hum_modID fields

c14_materia1ID table

The c14_materia1ID table stores information about the type of sample material used for 14C dating.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

MATERIA1ID

int2

pkey

TRUE

MATERIAL1

text

ukey

TRUE

MATERIA1AB

text

ukey

TRUE

c14_materia2ID table

The c14_materia2ID table stores information about the sub-type of sample material used for 14C dating. c14_materia2ID is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

MATERIA2ID

int2

pkey

TRUE

MATERIAL2

text

ukey

TRUE

PARENTID

int2

fkey

MATERIA2ID

MAT2_DESCR

text

  • MATERIA2ID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • MATERIAL2 – For available values refer to c14_materia2ID fields

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “MATERIA2ID”

  • MAT2_DESCR – A concise description of “MATERIAL2”

c14_solvent2ID table

The c14_solvent2ID table stores the solvent used for C14 sample processing.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

SOLVENT2ID

int2

pkey

TRUE

SOLVENT2

text

ukey

TRUE

SOLVENT2AB

text

ukey

TRUE

c_mtdID table

The c_mtdID table stores the method used to determine an element abundance/ ratio.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

C_MTDID

int2

pkey

TRUE

C_MTD

text

ukey

TRUE

C_MTDAB

text

ukey

  • C_MTDID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • C_MTD – For available values refer to c_mtdID fields

  • C_MTDAB – For available values refer to c_mtdID fields

arch_c14_polygons_EPSG3857 table

The arch_c14_polygons_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., polygons of the SahulArch/ Radiocarbon collection (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

serial4

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry(mp)

OBSID1

text

ukey

TRUE

OBSID2

text

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation

  • OBSID1 – A unique identifier and one-to-one reference to a certain observation

  • OBSID2 – The original sample identifier (as published), if available

arch_osl_polygons_EPSG3857 table

The arch_osl_polygons_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., polygons of the SahulArch/ OSL collection (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

serial4

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry(mp)

OBSID1

text

ukey

TRUE

OBSID2

text

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation

  • OBSID1 – A unique identifier and one-to-one reference to a certain observation

  • OBSID2 – The original sample identifier (as published), if available

arch_tl_polygons_EPSG3857 table

The arch_tl_polygons_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., polygons of the SahulArch/ TL collection (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

serial4

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry(mp)

OBSID1

text

ukey

TRUE

OBSID2

text

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation

  • OBSID1 – A unique identifier and one-to-one reference to a certain observation

  • OBSID2 – The original sample identifier (as published), if available


SahulChar tables

The following tables exclusively serve the SahulChar collection 🔥.

char_Sample table

The char_Sample table stores SahulChar sample information and is, therefore, situated between the char_DataCore table (subordinate) and the global_UnitMaster table (superordinate; see Semantic data model).

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

SMPID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

UNITID

int4

fkey

TRUE

global_UnitMaster table

SMPNAME

text

TRUE

SMPDEPTH

numeric

m

SMPCOMMT

text

  • SMPID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • UNITID – Is fkey. Refer to global_UnitMaster table table

  • SMPNAME – A human readable sample name in the form CONCAT(‘UNITNAME’, ‘SMPDEPTH’)

  • SMPDEPTH – Sample depth (m, two decimals)

  • SMPCOMMT – Free text sample comment field

char_DataCore table

The char_DataCore table stores charcoal / black carbon-related observations (= smallest data model entity), i.e., ages, counts and their associated lab-derived metrics / values for the SahulChar collection 🔥.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

OBSID

serial4

pkey

TRUE

SMPID

int4

fkey

TRUE

char_Sample table

OBSNAME

text

TRUE

LABID

text

LAB_ORIGID

int2

fkey

cabah_LabCodes table

WHATAMI

int2

fkey

TRUE

global_varunitID table

AGE*

numeric(12, 2)

see AGETYPEID

AGE_ERROR

numeric(12, 2)

see AGETYPEID

AGETYPEID

int2

fkey

cabah_agetypeID table

AGE_SPEC

varchar(12)

METHODID

int2

fkey

cabah_methodID table

MATERIA2ID

int2

fkey

c14_materia2ID table

EST_AGE

numeric(12, 2)

years BP

CALCURVEID

int2

fkey

c14_calcurve table

CALPROGID

int2

fkey

c14_calprogram table

CHARCOUNTS

numeric

CHARMTDID

int2

fkey

cabah_charmethodID table

CHARMEASID

int2

fkey

global_varunitID table

CHARMAX

numeric

see CHARSIZEID

CHARMIN

numeric

see CHARSIZEID

CHARSIZEID

int2

fkey

global_varunitID table

THICKNESS

numeric(8, 2)

cm

DATASRCID

int2

fkey

cabah_datasourceID table

REF1

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

REF2

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REF3

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

CHARCOMMT

text

  • OBSID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • SMPID – Is fkey. Refer to char_Sample table table

  • OBSNAME – A human readable observation name in the form CONCAT(‘SMPNAME’, ‘_charn_n’) for count observations resp. CONCAT(‘SMPNAME’, ‘_SMPDEPTH_age’) for ages

  • LABID – Unique lab code assigned by the lab where age was determined. For radiocarbon (and for many luminescence) labs, the first part of the lab code refers to the determining facility.

  • LAB_ORIGID – Is fkey. Refer to cabah_LabCodes table table

  • WHATAMI – What am I - counts or age? Is fkey. Refer to global_varunitID table table

  • AGE – Age value* (two decimals; see below note)

  • AGE_ERROR – Age error value (two decimals)

  • AGETYPEID – Is fkey. Refer to cabah_agetypeID table table

  • AGE_SPEC – Specifies if “AGE” should be considered a minimum / maximum age (if applicable)

  • METHODID – Is fkey. Refer to cabah_methodID table table

  • MATERIA2ID – Is fkey. Refer to c14_materia2ID table table

  • EST_AGE – Estimated, i.e., modelled age

  • CALCURVEID – Is fkey. Refer to c14_calcurve table table

  • CALPROGID – Is fkey. Refer to c14_calprogram table table

  • CHARCOUNTS – Charcoal or black carbon count

  • CHARMTDID – Is fkey. Refer to cabah_charmethodID table table

  • CHARMEASID – Is fkey. Refer to global_varunitID table table

  • CHARMAX – Maximum particle size

  • CHARMIN – Minimum particle size

  • CHARSIZEID – Is fkey. Refer to global_varunitID table table

  • THICKNESS – Sample thickness (cm)

  • DATASRCID – Is fkey. Refer to cabah_datasourceID table table

  • CHARCOMMT – Free text observation comment field

Note

* 🤓 Re “AGE” – Preference was given to uncalibrated rather than calibrated radiocarbon ages where possible, to allow for recalibration with future calibration curve updates. Ages reported in calendar years BC/AD or BCE/CE were converted to ‘years BP’ prior to entry or entered as AGE_UNIT = ‘other’ if conversion is not possible. Ages generated from dating methods that are measured as years prior to sample collection and do not require calibration, such as lead-210 or optically stimulated luminescence, were converted to ‘years BP’ prior to entry where possible or entered as AGE_UNIT = ‘other’.

SahulSed tables

The following tables exclusively serve the SahulSed collections 🍰.

sed_Sample table

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

SMPID

text

pkey

TRUE

SITEID

text

fkey

TRUE

global_SiteMaster table

SEDTYPE

varchar(3):p

GEOTYPEID

int2

fkey

sed_geotypeID table

DEPCONID

int2

fkey

sed_depconID table

DUNEFIELD

text

GEOMMODID

int2

fkey

sed_geommodID table

MORPHID

int2

fkey

sed_morphID table

DUNTRND

int2

° (degree)

SITETYPEID

int2

fkey

sed_sitetypeID table

DEPTHICK

text

m

SMPDEPTH

numeric(9, 2)

m

SED_MATID

int2

fkey

global_GrainSize table

FACIESID

int2

fkey

sed_faciesID table

LAKETYPEID

int2

fkey

sed_laketypeID table

BEACHEI

text

m

BEACHAHD

text

m

SMP_COMMT

text

  • SMPID – Sample identifier provided as part of the compilation. SahulSed SMPIDs have been aggregated using similarities in concatenated “X_WGS84” AND “Y_WGS84” AND “SITENAME” AND “SMPDEPTH”. Re suffixes – ‘_pre’ indicates that the matching age is preferred by the authors of the original publication; ‘_alt’ tags alternatives to ‘_pre’ ages; and ‘.o’ indicates the existence of a corresponding TL (‘.t’) measurement on the same sample.

  • SEDTYPE – Sedimentary facies, referring to the main mechanism of transportation and deposition and, therefore, determining OCTOPUS/ SahulSed sub-compilation membership. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘AEN’ (= aeolian), ‘FLV’ (= fluvial), or ‘LAC’ (= lacustrine)

  • DUNEFIELD – Name of dunefield in which the sample site located. Note – “DUNEFIELD” field only usable if “SEDTYPE” = ‘AEN’, i.e., must be NULL for ‘FLV’ or ‘LAC’. (‘ND’ = no data; NULL = not applicable)

  • DUNTRND – Trend, i.e., orientation of the sampled dune (in degree between 0 and 360). Note – “DUNTRND” field only usable if “SEDTYPE” = ‘AEN’, i.e., must be NULL for ‘FLV’ or ‘LAC’. (-9999 = no data; NULL = not applicable)

  • DEPTHICK – Total length of the core or height of the outcrop. (-9999 = no data; NULL = not applicable)

  • SMPDEPTH – Depth below the surface (or datum) from which sample was extracted. If the published sample depth was specified as a range, then the median value for that range is reported here. (-9999 = no data; NULL = not applicable)

  • BEACHEI – Height of the sampled beach ridge (if applicable). For beach ridges <1 m, 1 is recorded here. Note – “BEACHEI” field only usable if “SEDTYPE” = ‘LAC’, i.e., must be NULL for ‘AEN’ or ‘FLV’. (-9999 = no data; NULL = not applicable)

  • BEACHAHD – Australian Height Datum of the sampled beach ridge (if applicable). Note – “BEACHAHD” field only usable if “SEDTYPE” = ‘LAC’, i.e., must be NULL for ‘AEN’ or ‘FLV’. (-9999 = no data; NULL = not applicable)

  • SMP_COMMT – Free text sample comment field

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

sed-osl_DataCore table

The sed-osl_DataCore table stores stores OSL-related observations (= smallest data model entity), i.e., ages and their associated unique lab-derived data for the SahulSed collections 🍰, namely the The SahulSed Aeolian OSL collection, The SahulSed Fluvial OSL collection, and The SahulSed Lacustrine OSL collection.

Hint

For information about the structure and fields of the sed-osl_DataCore table please refer to the arch_osl_DataCore table. Said tables are structural identical.

sed-tl_DataCore table

The sed-tl_DataCore table stores stores TL-related observations (= smallest data model entity), i.e., ages and their associated unique lab-derived data for the SahulSed collections 🍰, namely the The SahulSed Aeolian TL collection, The SahulSed Fluvial TL collection, and The SahulSed Lacustrine TL collection.

Hint

For information about the structure and fields of the sed-tl_DataCore table please refer to the arch_tl_DataCore table. Said tables are structural identical.

sed_depconID table

The sed_depconID table stores the deposition context of a sampled feature.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

DEPCONID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

DEPCON

text

ukey

TRUE

  • DEPCONID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • DEPCON – For available values refer to sed_depconID fields

sed_faciesID table

The sed_faciesID table stores the type of sedimentological facies.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

FACIESID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

FACIES

text

ukey

TRUE

  • FACIESID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • FACIES – For available values refer to sed_faciesID fields

sed_geommodID table

The sed_geommodID table stores the geomorphic modifier of a sampled feature.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

GEOMMODID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

GEOMMOD

text

ukey

TRUE

  • GEOMMODID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • GEOMMOD – For available values refer to sed_geommodID fields

sed_geotypeID table

The sed_geotypeID table stores the geomorphological type of a sampled feature.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

GEOTYPEID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

GEOTYPE

text

ukey

TRUE

  • GEOTYPEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • GEOTYPE – For available values refer to sed_geotypeID fields

sed_laketypeID table

The sed_laketypeID table stores the type of (origin of) lake (formation). sed_laketypeID is a self-referencing table.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

LAKETYPEID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

LAKETYPE

text

ukey

TRUE

PARENTID

int2

fkey

LAKETYPEID

  • LAKETYPEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • LAKETYPE – For available values refer to sed_laketypeID fields

  • PARENTID – Is fkey. Refers to ordinal higher ranking “LAKETYPEID”

sed_morphID table

The sed_morphID table stores the morphology of a sampled feature.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

MORPHID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

MORPH

text

ukey

TRUE

  • MORPHID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • MORPH – For available values refer to sed_morphID fields

sed_sitetypeID table

The sed_sitetypeID table stores the type of the site from which samples were extracted.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

SITETYPEID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

SITETYPE

text

ukey

TRUE

  • SITETYPEID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • SITETYPE – For available values refer to sed_sitetypeID fields

sed-osl_points_EPSG3857 table

The sed-osl_points_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., points of the OSL collection (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

serial4

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry(pt)

OBSID1

text

ukey

TRUE

OBSID2

text

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation

  • OBSID1 – A unique identifier and one-to-one reference to a certain observation

  • OBSID2 – The original sample identifier (as published), if available

sed-tl_points_EPSG3857 table

The sed-tl_points_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., points of the TL collection (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

serial4

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry(pt)

OBSID1

text

ukey

TRUE

OBSID2

text

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation

  • OBSID1 – A unique identifier and one-to-one reference to a certain observation

  • OBSID2 – The original sample identifier (as published), if available

FosSahul tables

The following tables exclusively serve the FosSahul collection 🦥.

fos_Sample table

The fos_Sample table stores FosSahul collection sample information and is, therefore, situated between the collection-specific fos_DataCore table (subordinate) and the global_SiteMaster table (superordinate; see Semantic data model).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

SMPID

text

pkey

TRUE

SITEID

text

kkey

TRUE

global_SiteMaster table

STRAT_TAPH

text:p

SPEC_ABUND

text:p

SQUARE_XU

text

SMP_COMMT

text

  • SMPID – Unique sample identifier that, first and foremost, serves database operation. FosSahul SMPIDs have been aggregated using similarities in concatenated “X_WGS84” AND “Y_WGS84” AND “SITENAME” AND “OBSID2”.

  • STRAT_TAPH – 🔒 A predefined value set covers wheter stratigraphic (‘Strat’), taphonomic (‘Taph’) or even both (‘Both’) information are available in source publication; ‘ND’ (= no data), ‘NA’ (= not applicable). “REFDOI” references link to secondary literature containing “STRAT_TAPH” information, so for example ‘Strat, REFDOI2’ would refer to secondary stratigraphy linked to “REFDBID2”.

  • SPEC_ABUND – Wheter relative species abundances are given in source publication. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘No’ (= Species abundances unavailable), ‘Yes’ (= Species abundances available), ‘Yes, SupplMat’ (= Species abundances available in Supplementary Material of original Publication), ‘ND’ (= no data), ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • SQUARE_XU – Square or trench designation and/ or excavation unit or spit designation from where the sample is from. Recurrent nomenclature abbreviated as described in ‘Values’ to the left; abbreviations are not upper/ lower case sensitive. AHD – Australian Height Datum, abv. – above, analyt. – analytical, arch. – archaeological, bel. – below, brec. – breccia, catal. – catalogue, class. – classic, cult. – cultural, dat. – datum, dep. – deposit, excav. – excavated/ -ion, geom. – geomorphological, hozn. – horizon, in. – inch(es), lay. – layer, low. – lower, meas. – measured, mega. – megafauna(l), no. – number, pleist. – Pleistocene, overl. – overlying, rel. – relative, sect. – section, sed. – sediment/s, shelt. – shelter, sqre. – square, strat. – stratigraphic, strm. – stratum, surf. – surface, trch. – trench(es), underl. – underlying, u. – unit, up. – upper

  • SMP_COMMT – Free text sample comment field

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

fos_DataCore table

The fos_DataCore table stores observations (= smallest data model entity) for the FosSahul collection 🦥 and is subordinate to the fos_Sample table.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

OBSID1

text

pkey

TRUE

SMPID

text

fkey

TRUE

fos_Sample table

OBSID2

text

LABID

text

IGSNID

text

LAB_ORIGID

int2

fkey

cabah_LabCodes table

FOS_MTDID

int2

fkey

cabah_methodID table

FOS_MTDSID

int2

fkey

fos_mtdsID table

DBDOI

text

fkey

global_dbDOI table

REFDBID1

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

REFDBID2

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID3

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID4

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

FOSMAT1ID

int2

fkey

fos_fosmat1ID table

FOSMAT2ID

int2

fkey

fos_fosmat2ID table

SPECIESID

int2

fkey

fos_TaxRank6_speciesID table

GENUSID

int2

fkey

fos_TaxRank5_genusID table

FAMILYID

int2

fkey

fos_TaxRank4_familyID table

ORDRID

int2

fkey

fos_TaxRank3_ordrID table

INFRACLAID

int2

fkey

fos_TaxRank2_infraclaID table

CLASSID

int2

fkey

fos_TaxRank1_classID table

STATUS

varchar(7):p

MEGAFAUNA

varchar(3):p

C14_CALIB

varchar(3):p

PHYSCLEAN

varchar(3):p

CONTAM

varchar(8):p

CHEMTYPEID

int2

fkey

fos_chemtypeID table

CHEMPREPID

int2

fkey

cabah_chemprepID table

XTR_PROBLEM

varchar(3):p

CN_RATIO

numeric

PCT_N

numeric

%

C14_XRDIFF

varchar(3):p

AAR_T_HIST

varchar(4):p

AAR_CLOSD

varchar(3):p

AAR_UNCERT

varchar(3):p

AAR_INCAL

varchar(3):p

U_TH_PRE

text

U_TH_CLOSD

varchar(3):p

U_TH_DCORR

varchar(3):p

ESR_I_DR10

text

ESR_GAMMA

text

ALIQ_TYPE

varchar(2)

BLEACH_STS

text

AGEMD_TRUE

varchar(3)

AGE

numeric

ka

AGE_ERR

numeric

ka

AGE_TYPE

varchar(5):p

AGE_CI

varchar(3):p

AGE_PREQ

varchar(3):p

AGE_Q

varchar(3):p

AGE_SUBQ

varchar(6):p

AGE_ASSOC1

varchar(8):p

AGE_ASSOC2

text

AGE_PREQ_R

text

AGE_Q_R

text

AGE_COMMT

text

  • OBSID1 – Unique sample identifier provided as part of the compilation. Serves as back reference to parent FosSahul fork (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-019-0267-3), with the prefix ‘FOS’ and wildcard zero(s) added to the original ID.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is NOT the laboratory code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample. Samples labelled only by numbers in the literature (e.g., 1, 2, 3 etc) have had a compound prefix – first three author name letters AND double-digit publication year – added (e.g. ‘Nan87_1’ for sample 1 (Nanson 1987)).

  • LABID – Unique lab code assigned by the lab where age was determined. For radiocarbon (and for many luminescence) labs, the first part of the lab code refers to the determining facility.

  • IGSNID – Placeholder for International Geo Sample Number unique ID

  • STATUS – Most updated status. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Extant’, ‘Extinct’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • MEGAFAUNA – ‘Yes’ if species weight > 44 kg, otherwise ‘No’, ‘ND’ for no data

  • C14_CALIB – Whether the published radiocarbon age is calibrated or uncalibrated. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • PHYSCLEAN – Was the sample physically cleaned? For example, was the surface removed from bone (= ‘Yes’), were rootlets and sediment removed from charcoal (= ‘Yes’). 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • CONTAM – Whether the study authors suggest a contaminant may have occurred. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Likely’ (= contamination likely), ‘Possible’ (= contamination possible), ‘No’ (= not contaminated), or ‘Yes’ (= indication for contamination), ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • XTR_PROBLEM – Whether the study authors reported extraction problems. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • CN_RATIO – Measured atomic C:N ratio of the pretreated sample

  • PCT_N – Measured %N of the pretreated sample

  • C14_XRDIFF – For corals/shells only: Indicates if X-ray diffraction shows that recrystallisation is insignificant. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AAR_T_HIST – Thermal history of the sample. Based on the established quality rating criteria (Rodríguez-Rey et al. 2015): is the thermal history of the sample unknown or were materials burnt (i.e., is “AAR_T_HIST” not ‘Fine’), then rating will be ‘C’. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Fine’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AAR_CLOSD – Whether the material has demonstrated closed-system behaviour. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AAR_UNCERT – Whether multiple analyses were replicated with low uncertainties. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AAR_INCAL – Whether reliable calibration was done using independent dating techniques. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • U_TH_PRE – Short description of pretreatment

  • U_TH_CLOSD – Uranium-series ages for teeth (dentine) and bone: whether closed-system behaviour has been demonstrated by U-series profiling and modelling based on continuous profiles or spot sampling using laser ablation. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • U_TH_DCORR – Uranium-series ages for closed-system of no body remains (e.g., speleothems, corals, calcite within bones etc): Whether a correction was made for detrital thorium contamination. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • ESR_I_DR10 – ESR ages: Whether the internal dose rate is less/ greater 10%. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘<10’ (= less than 10%), ‘>10’ (= greater than 10%), ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • ESR_GAMMA – ESR ages: Whether the gamma dose rate was measured ‘In_situ’ or was ‘Assumed’. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘In_situ’, ‘Assumed’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • ALIQ_TYPE – Reported aliquot type used for equivalent dose determination. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘MA’ (= Multi Aliquot), ‘SA’ (= Single Aliquot), ‘SG’ (= Single Grain), ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • BLEACH_STS – Luminescence bleaching status. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Adequately’, ‘Partially’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AGEMD_TRUE – Luminescence single grain equivalent dose model. Whether the luminescence age can be modelled. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AGE – Published age

  • AGE_ERR – Published total age error

  • AGE_TYPE – Temporal quality of published age estimate. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Min’ (= Minimum age), ‘Max’ (= Maximum age), ‘Exact’ (= Exact age), ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AGE_CI – Published confidence interval on the age estimate. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘1SD’ (= 1 Standard deviation), ‘2SD’ (= 2 Standard deviations), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • AGE_PREQ – Quality rating of dating protocol (see Rodríguez-Rey, M. et al. 2015. Quat Geochronol 30. Fig. 1). 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘m*’ (= Highest reliability), ‘m’ (= High reliability), ‘B’ (= Low reliability), ‘C’ (= Lowest reliability), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • AGE_Q – Reliability rating of fossil age (see Rodríguez-Rey, M. et al. , 2015). 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘A*’ (= Highly reliable), ‘A’ (= Reliable), ‘B’ (= Unreliable), C (= Highly unreliable), ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • AGE_SUBQ – Sub-category of “AGE_Q”, if reliable by association (see Rodríguez-Rey, M. et al. , 2015). 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘a’ (= above), ‘w’ (= within), ‘b’ (= below), ‘ND’ (= no data), or ‘NA’ (= not applicable)

  • AGE_ASSOC1 – ‘Direct’ age estimates have been derived from vertebrate parts of the target species itself. ‘Indirect’ ages are not based on taget species body parts, but still can be used based on association, i.e., the relationship between the target fossil and the dated structure/ material. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Direct’, ‘Indirect’, or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • AGE_ASSOC2 – Applicable if “AGE_ASSOC1” = ‘Indirect’. Additional descriptor for the quality of the association between the dated structure/ material and the target specimen. Is NA if “AGE_ASSOC1” = ‘Direct’. 🔒 A predefined value set only allows for ‘Yes’ (= clear association), ‘No’ (= association not clear), ‘Uncertain’ (= association uncertain), ‘NA’ (“AGE_ASSOC1” = ‘Direct’), or ‘ND’ (= no data)

  • AGE_PREQ_R – Reason for “AGE_PREQ” value

  • AGE_Q_R – Reason for “AGE_Q” value

  • AGE_COMMT – Free text age comment field

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

fos_TaxRank1_classID table

The fos_TaxRank1_classID table stores the most updated vertebrata class name.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

CLASSID

int2

pkey

TRUE

CLASS

text

ukey

TRUE

  • CLASSID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • CLASS – The most updated vertebrata class name. For available values refer to fos_TaxRank1_classID fields

fos_TaxRank2_infraclaID table

The fos_TaxRank2_infraclaID table stores the most updated vertebrata infraclass name.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

INFRACLAID

int2

pkey

TRUE

INFRACLASS

text

ukey

TRUE

  • INFRACLAID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • INFRACLASS – The most updated vertebrata infraclass name. For available values refer to fos_TaxRank2_infraclaID fields

fos_TaxRank3_ordrID table

The fos_TaxRank3_ordrID table stores the most updated vertebrata order name.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

ORDRID

int2

pkey

TRUE

ORDR

text

ukey

TRUE

  • ORDRID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • ORDR – The most updated vertebrata order name. For available values refer to fos_TaxRank3_ordrID fields

fos_TaxRank4_familyID table

The fos_TaxRank4_familyID table stores the most updated vertebrata family name.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

FAMILYID

int2

pkey

TRUE

FAMILY

text

ukey

TRUE

  • FAMILYID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • FAMILY – The most updated vertebrata family name. For available values refer to fos_TaxRank4_familyID fields

fos_TaxRank5_genusID table

The fos_TaxRank5_genusID table stores the most updated vertebrata genus name.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

GENUSID

int2

pkey

TRUE

GENUS

text

ukey

TRUE

  • GENUSID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • GENUS – The most updated vertebrata genus name. For available values refer to fos_TaxRank5_genusID fields

fos_TaxRank6_speciesID table

The fos_TaxRank6_speciesID table stores the most updated vertebrata species name.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

SPECIESID

int2

pkey

TRUE

SPECIES

text

ukey

TRUE

  • SPECIESID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • SPECIES – The most updated vertebrata species name. For available values refer to fos_TaxRank6_speciesID fields

fos_chemtypeID table

The fos_chemtypeID table stores the type of chemical pretreatment given to the sample as described in the original publication. There may be considerable variation within each pretreatment code.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

CHEMTYPEID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

CHEMTYPE

text

ukey

TRUE

CHEMTYPEAB

text

ukey

TRUE

fos_fosmat1ID table

The fos_fosmat1ID table stores the type of dated remain.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

FOSMAT1ID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

FOSMAT1

text

ukey

TRUE

FOSMAT1ABB

text

ukey

TRUE

  • FOSMAT1IDd – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • FOSMAT1 – For available values refer to fos_fosmat1ID fields

  • FOSMAT1ABB – For available values refer to fos_fosmat1ID fields

fos_fosmat2ID table

The fos_fosmat2ID table stores the type of dated material.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

FOSMAT2ID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

FOSMAT2

text

ukey

TRUE

FOSMAT2ABB

text

ukey

TRUE

fos_mtdsID table

The fos_mtdsID table stores the type of method used in age determination.

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

FOS_MTDSID

int2 seq.

pkey

TRUE

FOS_MTDSUB

text

ukey

TRUE

FOS_MTDSAB

text

ukey

TRUE

  • FOS_MTDSID – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • FOS_MTDSUB – For available values refer to fos_mtdsID fields

  • FOS_MTDSAB – For available values refer to fos_mtdsID fields

fos_polygons_EPSG3857 table

The fos_polygons_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., polygons of the FosSahul partner collection (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

int4 seq.

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry*

OBSID1

text

pkey, ukey

TRUE

fos_DataCore table

OBSID2

text

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation

  • OBSID1 – A unique identifier and one-to-one reference to a certain observation

  • OBSID2 – The original sample identifier (as published), if available

ExpAge tables

The following tables exclusively serve the ExpAge collection 💥.

expage_Sample table

The expage_Sample table stores ExpAge collection 💥 sample information and is, therefore, situated between the collection-specific expage_DataCore table (subordinate) and the global_SiteMaster table (superordinate; see Semantic data model).

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

SMPID

text

pkey

TRUE

SITEID

text

fkey

TRUE

global_SiteMaster table

MATERIALID

int2

fkey

global_GrainSize table

THICKNESS

numeric(7, 4)

cm

DENSITY

numeriv(6, 4)

g.cm^-3

SHIELDING

numeric( 7, 6)

SMP_YR

int2

SMP_COMMT

text

  • SMPID – Unique sample identifier that serves database operation

  • THICKNESS – Sample thickness

  • DENSITY – Sample density. When information is not provided in original publication, 2.65 g/cm^3 is assumed

  • SHIELDING – Topographic / geometric shielding of the sample

  • SMP_YR – Year of sample collection. Generally assumed to be two years before publication if not indicated.

  • SMP_COMMT – Free text sample comment field

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

expage_DataCore table

The expage_DataCore table stores observations (= smallest data model entity) for the ExpAge collection 💥 and is subordinate to the expage_Sample table.

Field

Data type

Unit

Key

Not Null

Parent

OBSID1

text

pkey

TRUE

SMPID

text

fkey

TRUE

expage_Sample table

OBSID2

text

IGSNID

text

DBDOI

text

fkey

TRUE

global_dbDOI table

REFDBID1

text

fkey

TRUE

global_RefCore table

REFDBID2

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID3

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

REFDBID4

text

fkey

global_RefCore table

BE10NP

int8

atoms.g^-1

BE10NP_ERR

int8

atoms.g^-1

BESTNDID

int2

fkey

crn_bestndID table

BE10AP

numeric

kyr

BE10AP_ERR

numeric

kyr

AL26NP

int8

atoms.g^-1

AL26NP_ERR

int8

atoms.g^-1

ALSTNDID

int2

fkey

crn_bestndID table

AL26AP

numeric

kyr

AL26AP_ERR

numeric

kyr

ABE_YR

numeric

kyr

ABE_ERREXT

numeric

kyr

ABE_ERRINT

numeric

kyr

AAL_YR

numeric

kyr

AAL_ERREXT

numeric

kyr

AAL_ERRINT

numeric

kyr

  • OBSID1 – Unique age identifier provided as part of the compilation. Serves as back reference to parent ExpAge fork (https://expage.github.io), with running alphabetic letter(s) added to the original “Sample ID”.

  • OBSID2 – Original sample identifier (as published). This is NOT the laboratory code provided by some labs, but the ID used by authors of the source publication to identify the sample.

  • IGSNID – Placeholder for International Geo Sample Number unique ID

  • BE10NP – Published Be-10 concentration. (-9999 = no data)

  • BE10NP_ERR – Published 1-sigma uncertainty in Be-10 concentration. (-9999 = no data)

  • BE10AP – Published Be-10 exposure age. (-9999 = no data)

  • BE10AP_ERR – Published Be-10 exposure age. (-9999 = no data)

  • AL26NP – Published Al-26 concentration. (-9999 = no data)

  • AL26NP_ERR – Published 1-sigma uncertainty in Al-26 concentration. (-9999 = no data)

  • AL26AP – Published Al-26 exposure age. (-9999 = no data)

  • AL26AP_ERR – Published Al-26 exposure age. (-9999 = no data)

  • ABE_YR – Recalculated zero erosion Be-10 exposure age. (-9999.99 = no data)

  • ABE_ERREXT – External uncertainty for “ABE_YR”. (-9999.99 = no data) For detailed information see Balco et al. 2008 9

  • ABE_ERRINT – External uncertainty for “ABE_YR”. (-9999.99 = no data) For detailed information see Balco et al. 2008

  • AAL_YR – Recalculated zero erosion Al-26 exposure age. (-9999.99 = no data)

  • AAL_ERREXT – External uncertainty for “AAL_YR”. (-9999.99 = no data) For detailed information see Balco et al. 2008

  • AAL_ERRINT – Internal uncertainty for “AAL_YR”. (-9999.99 = no data) For detailed information see Balco et al. 2008

Note

Fkey fields are decribed elsewhere, i.e., within the scope of their tables of origin.

expage_points_EPSG3857 table

The expage_points_EPSG3857 table stores spatial features, i.e., points of the ExpAge partner collection (EPSG:900913).

Field

Data type

Key

Not Null

Parent

id

int4 seq.

pkey

TRUE

geom

geometry*

OBSID1

text

pkey, ukey

TRUE

expage_DataCore table

OBSID2

text

  • id – A unique identifier (auto-incrementing serial integer)

  • geom – WKT geometry notation

  • OBSID1 – A unique identifier and one-to-one reference to a certain observation

  • OBSID2 – The original sample identifier (as published), if available

Footnotes

1

Primary key

2

Unique key

3

Foreign key

4

This self-referencing table is both parent and child at the same time - a table design that was chosen for the representation of nested hierarchies.

5

PostgreSQL view: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/sql-createview.html

6

Field descriptions unaltered taken from https://postgis.net/

7

https://www.ctan.org/pkg/bibtex

8

Digital Elevation Model, i.e., a digital representation of elevation data / terrain

9

dimensionless

10

https://epsg.org/

11

Well Known Text (https://postgis.net/docs/manual-1.4/ch04.html#id417971)

12

Balco et al. 2008 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2007.12.001)